Birds have been a menace to aircraft since the very beginning of flight. Although it seems unlikely that a small, winged animal could bring down a large aircraft, similar mishaps have resulted in numerous close calls as well as catastrophic crashes and fatalities.
Birds getting into engines: New Airworthiness Standards Added by the FAA The US Airways NTSB suggested revising the requirements for engine certification testing following the disaster of Flight 1549.
According to the new test requirement being proposed by the FAA, engine manufacturers will have to demonstrate that the engine core can continue to function after "ingesting a medium-sized bird while operating at the lower fan speed associated with climbing or landing" in order to receive certification.
In 14 CFR 33.76, the new requirements have been introduced. They want to address the issue of bird flocks, such as geese, being pulled into an aircraft engine, as has occurred in the past. The latest recommended test by the FAA for a bird strike during takeoff calls for firing a bird at the engine core at a speed of 250 kts while setting the mechanical engine fan speed to the lowest anticipated speed when climbing through 3,000 ft of altitude above ground level (AGL). After that, the engine would have to run with a minimum of 50% take-off thrust permitted for the first minute following bird ingestion.
In order to address bird engine ingestion, the Ministry of Transport (DOT) has added new test criteria to the airworthiness regulations. Now that the average flock of birds (MFB) has been ingestion, the new turbofan engines should be able to keep running while still operating at a fan speed associated with rising or landing.
The most notorious bird-related air disasters are listed here.
US Airways flight 1549, which occurred in recent years, must be the most well-known bird strike occurrence. The Airbus 320's pilot, Chesley "Sully" Sullenberger, was in charge when it took off from LaGuardia Airport in January 2009. 150 passengers and five staff members should have made the trip to Charlotte, North Carolina, a normal one. Nevertheless, shortly after takeoff, the plane slammed into a group of Canadian geese.
A single goose could be dangerous if it struck a jet, but a full flock would wreck both engines of the enormous airliner. Canada geese can grow up to 122 centimeters in height and weigh up to11 kilos. Captain Sullenberger cannot start the engines and made the decision to set the plane down on the Hudson River. And less than five minutes after the strike, he landed on the water, saving the lives of all 155 people aboard.
The crew and passengers on board Eastern Airlines flight 375 weren't that fortunate, regrettably. The Lockheed L188A Electra took off from Logan Airport on October 4, 1960. The aircraft quickly collided with a group of starlings. Although they only weigh about 3.5 ounces (100 grams) each, starlings may gather in large flocks of up to 100,000 birds at once.
A number of birds were sucked into engines 1, 2, and 4 when the jet struck the flock. The aircraft then abruptly lost power, rolling and crashing into Winthrop Bay. The airliner was entirely destroyed in the incident, which claimed 62 lives. Seventy-five starling carcasses were discovered on the runway during the inquiry.
Imagine such a tiny bird being responsible for the deadliest plane crash in history due to a bird strike!
8 flocks of seagulls.
Russian jet passenger survives crash landing in cornfield
On August 15, 2019, an Airbus A321 operated by Ural Airlines collided with a flock of seagulls while taking off from Moscow's Zhukovsky Airport. The flight's pilot, Damir Yusupov, landed the plane in a nearby cornfield, saving the lives of everyone on board. Although 70 injuries were reported, only one was serious enough to require hospital treatment.
Following the accident, the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) recommended changes to engine certification testing standards.
Why do engines need new tests?
In the past, engine testing was performed with the engine running at 100% takeoff power, or thrust. This parameter is well suited for testing fan blades, but does not correspond to the lower fan speeds used during the climb and approach phases of an aircraft.
According to the information available in According to the Federal Register, in order to check the reaction of the engine during the climb the test bird must be launched at a speed of 261 knots (corresponding to 250 knots specified airspeed (KIAS)). During standard day climbs to altitudes of 3,000 feet, the mechanical motor fan speed should be set to the lowest expected speed. After a bird strike, and a test run with a large flock of birds, the engine must meet the new requirements, but depending on the thrust of the engine during the climb, the engine may produce less than 50% of the load in the first minute after the bird strike (thrust off). To check engine response during landing, the bird must take off at 209 knots (200-KIAS). On approach, the engine must be set to the lowest fan speed expected at a 3000% reduction. This test takes only six minutes, because, during the approach, "the aircraft will already be aligned with the
runway," the DOT said in a statement. The new tests do not affect the current engine designs. This rule will only apply to newly certified engines.
If the engine passes this test without the part of the bird going into the core, the manufacturer has to do another test with the bird at 200 knots and set the engine to descend through 3,000 feet on approach. Minimum fan speed to use when altitude AGL is expected. The engine should run for six minutes after impact.